Skip to main content

Full text of "Annual report of the Commissioner of Animal Industry"

See other formats


rb 




Given By 



L£ 



CuinjL.. sJttn/mj^^^ 



B 1 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/annualreportofc1918mass. 



Public Document 



No. 98 



SEVENTH ANNUAL EEPOET 



OF THE 



Commissioner of Animal Industry 



For the Year ending November 30, 1918 




%njj*r*r 



0/ 



BOSTON 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS 

32 DERNE STREET 

1919 



Iff 






Publication of this Document 

approved by the 
Supervisor of Administration. 



©t)e CctrmtDmoectltl) of itta00acl)ii0ett0 



Department of Animal Industry, 
Boston, Dec. 1, 1918. 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives. 

In accordance with the provisions of section 4, chapter 608, 
Acts of 1912, I have the honor, as Commissioner of Animal 
Industry, to present the report of the Department's work for 
the year ending Nov. 30, 1918. 

The Department of Animal Industry is charged with the 
duty of inspection and examination of animals within the 
Commonwealth; the quarantining and killing when necessary 
of animals affected with, or which have been exposed to, con- 
tagious disease; the burial or other disposal of their carcasses; 
the cleansing and disinfection of districts, buildings or places 
where contagion exists or has existed. It is also charged with 
the duty of tuberculin testing all neat cattle shipped from 
other States to Massachusetts, unless the same are intended 
for immediate slaughter, or are accompanied by a record of test 
made by a veterinarian approved by the live-stock official of 
the State from which they are shipped, and which record is 
accepted by the Commissioner on arrival of the animals. 

The relation of live-stock keeping to agriculture is so intimate 
that the control and eradication of contagious diseases among 
farm animals become imperative and constitute an important 
economic factor in the material prosperity of many citizens of 
the Commonwealth. By limiting the spread of communicable 
diseases of animals by control methods, and inhibiting their 
development by preventive methods when possible, a certain 
effect on numbers is produced and there follows a consequent 
increase of the salable products derived from them. Fertility 
of the soil dependent upon live-stock keeping benefits by such 



4 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

increased numbers, and general crop production therefore in- 
creases in a certain ratio to the increase in the number of 
animals produced and maintained in a healthy condition. 

Our dependence upon domestic animals for food material 
further indicates the necessity of well-directed effort toward 
the suppression of contagious diseases among cattle, sheep and 
swine. When we consider that the carcasses of half a million 
animals are annually condemned in the United States as unfit 
for human food on account of the presence of extensive lesions 
of contagious disease, we may realize how important it is to 
limit in every way possible the prevalence of such disease in 
food-producing animals and thereby to reduce this great 
waste. 

The work of the Department of Animal Industry bears an 
important relation also to the maintenance and protection of 
the public health by its activities in suppression of such animal 
diseases as are communicable to the human subject, namely, 
glanders, tuberculosis, rabies, anthrax, actinomycosis, etc. Any 
one of these diseases may be transmitted to persons if circum- 
stances favorable to such transmission are present, and we 
find that a certain toll of human life is annually exacted by 
them. 

Our work in supervision of the health of animals may there- 
fore be classed as auxiliary to that of the public health service, 
and if efficient is of positive value to the general public 
welfare. 

In accordance with the provisions of chapter 189, Acts of 
1918, this report will consist of a brief summary of the year's 
work of the Department, with the addition, however, of a few 
charts covering the control work of recent years in some of the 
principal contagious diseases of animals with the prevalence of 
which we have to deal. In our opinion these charts will be of 
considerable interest to many who have been familiar with the 
workings of this Department during a period of years. They 
show the progress of the control work during different periods, 
and summarize the success of such policies as have been pursued 
for a length of time sufficient to conclusively prove the wisdom 
of their inauguration. 



1919.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 5 

Following is a gross summary of the work of the Department 
for the year ending Nov. 30, 1918: — 

Cattle. 

8,940 Massachusetts cattle were physically examined by Department 
agents. 
583 Massachusetts cattle were tuberculin tested by Department 
agents. 
17,492 Interstate cattle were tuberculin tested by Department agents. 
1,083 Animals on 119 farms in 43 towns were given preventive treat- 
ment against blackleg. 
133 Animals on 9 farms were given preventive treatment against 
anthrax. 

Horses. 

1,540 Tests for glanders were made by Department agents. 
4,425 Interstate horses were examined by Department agents. 
40 Tests of whole stables were made by Department agents. 

Dogs. 
403 Dogs were examined by Department agents. 

Swine. 

56,768 Head of swine were treated in prevention and cure of hog cholera. 
5,653 Head of swine were treated in prevention and cure of hemorrhagic 
septicemia. 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 

191 Cases of miscellaneous diseases were investigated by Department 
agents. 

Bovine Tubekculosis. 

The control of tuberculosis in cattle is still one of our serious 
problems. It requires constant and faithful application of all 
available methods found by experience to be effective, and 
continuous study of conditions affecting the interpretation of 
the results obtained as a basis for future plans of procedure. 
New phases of the problem which from time to time appear, 
new methods recommended by recognized authorities, and new 
suggestions by our workers in the field, must be given due 
consideration. 

The general policy which has been pursued by the Depart- 
ment for the past three years is still in operation. This policy 



6 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

briefly stated is as follows: Tuberculin testing of all cattle 
arriving in Massachusetts from other States not accompanied 
by approved records of test, followed by slaughter of the 
reacting animals; annual examination by local inspectors of 
animals of all Massachusetts cattle and the premises on which 
they are kept, with a detailed report as to the health of the 
animals and the sanitary condition of the premises; quarantine 
of all animals suspected of being diseased, followed by an 
examination by a Department inspector not only of the sus- 
pected animal but of all other members of the herd in which 
it is found, with the slaughter of such as are found diseased; 
disinfection of the premises where diseased animals are found 
and a "follow-up" examination of the herd three months later; 
the same process of disinfection and re-examination of herd 
again carried out if additional cases are found; tuberculin 
testing of herds at request of the owners, under an agreement 
as to the disposal of the reacting animals; co-operation with 
the United States Department of Agriculture in the testing of 
herds of pure-bred animals made with the twofold object of 
eradicating the disease and establishing an accredited list of 
tuberculosis-free herds, both of which must ultimately be to the 
financial benefit of the owner and the convenience of intending 
purchasers. The problem is therefore attacked from all its 
different angles. 

In our opinion the present Massachusetts plan of searching 
out and disposing of clinical cases of tuberculosis, thereby 
removing the most active spreaders of the disease, is one of the 
most effective methods by which progress in its actual control 
is accomplished. The diagnostic value of the tuberculin test, 
carefully applied by competent men, is very generally recog- 
nized; it should be taken advantage of at every opportunity 
for the purpose of disclosing the non-clinical cases. Although 
not infallible even in the hands of most competent and careful 
veterinarians, satisfactory control of the prevalence of tuber- 
culosis among our neat cattle is not possible without its aid. 



1919.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 




s 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



The preceding chart has been made from Department records 
and covers a period of seventeen years. Reference to it shows 
a sharp decline during the past year both in the number of 
cases of tuberculosis reported from all sources and in the number 
of animals found by post-mortem examination to be positively 
affected with that disease. It also shows that the number in 
each instance is the lowest recorded during the period covered 
by the chart. 

In this connection it should be stated, as showing the relation 
of number of cases of tuberculosis to number of animals in the 
State, that the records of the annual inspection of all bovine 
animals in 1918 show that their number has increased about 
1 per cent. (2,445 animals) during the year, and also that their 
present total number is at about the yearly average for the 
period covered by the chart. The low record of tuberculosis 
cases shown in the years 1914 and 1915 is misleading, for the 
reason that on account of the prevalence of foot-and-mouth 
disease during those years examinations and inspections were 
necessarily suspended. 

Following are various tables showing the extent of the work 
of the Department in connection with the control of bovine 
tuberculosis in Massachusetts for the year ending Nov. 30, 

1918: — 

Massachusetts Cattle. 

Cattle reported as diseased in 1917 disposed of in 1918, . 5 

Cattle reported as diseased during the year, . . . 1,213 



Disposal of Above Animals. 



1,218 





a 

O 
to 

a 

.2 

3 


xn 

a 
_o 

'at 
Hi 

O 

a 

:=: o 

.-« 4-1 


m 

a 
.2 

o 
P4 


o 
M a 

3 

a 

."S.2 
'a 'en 

C 0> 
PL, 


s 


8 
m 

s 

■a) 

n 


OS 

*— t 
o 

u 

E 

M 
O 


03 

+-> 
o 


Reported by inspectors, owners, etc., 
Reacted to Department tests, 

Reacted to private tests 

Reacted to United States tests, . 


737 
18 


15 


30 
81 
92 
45 


10 
2 
1 
1 


40 
1 


126 
3 


10 
6 


968 
89 

115 
46 


Totals 


755 


15 


248 


14 


41 


129 


16 


1,218 



1919.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. .9 

The preceding table shows the disposal of Massachusetts 
cattle suspected of tuberculosis and reported from all different 
sources. Following is a tabulation of tuberculin tests only, 
made by Department agents and reported by private veteri- 
narians, showing also the disposal of such reactors as came 
under the jurisdiction of the Department and such as could be 
arranged for by consultation with owners. 

Department Tests. 

Premises on which tests were made, ........ 24 

Number of animals tested, 583 

Number of animals tested more than once, . . . . . 112 

Number of reactors, 164 

Disposal of Reactors. 

Killed, lesions found (including 2 tested in 1917), .... 81 

Killed, no lesions found, 2 

Killed by owner, no killing order issued, 6 

Awaiting action, 72 

Note. — In addition to above, 5 animals were quarantined after test 
and killed, same being included in above record as reported by inspectors. 

Tests reported by Private Veterinarians. 

Number of herds in which animals were reported, . . . . 79 

Number of animals tested, 1,748 

Number of animals reported tested more than once, . . . 370 

Number of reactors, 493 

Disposal of Reactors. 

Slaughtered by owner, no record of post-mortem findings, . . 305 

Condemned on physical examination, 18 

Died, no post-mortem examination made, 1 

Killed, lesions found, 81 1 

Killed, no lesions found, 1 

Showing no plrysical symptoms of tuberculosis, no record of dis- 
posal, . 30 

Retested by Department agents and killed, 17 

Awaiting action, 40 

493 

1 In addition, 11 animals reacting to tests made in 1917 were killed and lesions found, recorded 
in preceding table. 



10 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

During the year agents of the Department physically ex- 
amined 799 herds of Massachusetts cattle comprising 8,940 
head, of which number 850 were killed and found diseased. 

Interstate Cattle. 

At Brighton Quarantine Station. 

Number held from 1917 for tuberculin retest in 1918, . 5 

Number received and tuberculin tested during the year, 14,119 
Number accepted on approved records of test, . . 1,002 ' 

15,126 



Disposal of Above Animals. 

Number released on accepted records of test, . . . 1,002 

Number released on first test by Department agents, . 13,487 

Number released on second test by Department agents, . 150 

Number condemned, lesions of tuberculosis found, . . 390 

Number condemned, lesions of tuberculosis not found, . 45 
Number slaughtered on u permit to kill" warrant, lesions 

found, ........... 29 

Number slaughtered on " permit to kill" warrant, lesions 

not found, 8 

Number released for slaughter at owner's request, . . 2 

Number died, 2 

Number held awaiting retest, 11 



At Other Points. 

Number condemned in 1917 awaiting slaughter in 1918, . 7 

Number held from 1917 for test or other disposal inl918, 110 

Number received during 1918, 6,407 



Disposal of Above Animals. 

Number released on accepted records of test, . . . 2,942 

Number released on first test by Department agents, . 3,200 

Number released on second test by Department agents, . 57 

Number condemned, lesions of tuberculosis found, . . 77 

Number condemned, lesions of tuberculosis not found, . 6 
Number slaughtered on " permit to kill" warrant, lesions 

found, 11 

Number slaughtered on "permit to kill" warrant, lesions 

not found, 3 

Number died, . 4 

Number condemned awaiting slaughter, .... 1 

Number held awaiting test or other disposal, . . . 210 

Number held awaiting retest or other disposal, . . 13 



15,126 



6,524 



6,524 



1919.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 11 



Summary. 
Total interstate dairy cattle received at Brighton station, 15,126 
Total interstate dairy cattle received at other points, . 6,524 



21,650 



Origin of the Above Interstate Cattle. 

Vermont, 8,480 

New Hampshire, . . . . . . . • 6,439 

Maine, 4,945 

Connecticut, 241 

Rhode Island, . . . . . . '. . < . 61 

New York, . 1,147 

Other States, 337 



21,650 

Animals other than dairy cattle requiring tuberculin test, 
received at other points than the quarantine stations and 
brought from other States on permits issued by the Department, 
may be classified as below. 



Cattle not requiring Tuberculin Test. 

Cattle for immediate slaughter, 2,534 

Calves for immediate slaughter, 3,282 

Dairy calves under six months old, 214 

Cattle returned from out-of -State pastures, 569 

Returned from sales or exhibitions in other States, . . . . 106 

Returned from temporary stay in other States for other purposes, . 6 

Remaining in State for brief periods only, for breeding purposes, etc., 80 

For temporary stay at sales or exhibitions, 73 

Total, 6,864 

There are large slaughtering establishments at Haverhill, West 
Newbury and Springfield where Federal inspection of slaughtered 
animals is maintained, to which points cattle and calves for 
immediate slaughter can be shipped without special permit, 
record of which is not kept by this Department. There are 
on an average several thousand animals shipped to these 
points annually, and it is estimated that at least from 90 to 95 
per cent, of them come into Massachusetts from other States. 



12 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

There were 1,288 permits issued during the year for bringing 
cattle from other States to points outside the quarantine sta- 
tions, on 20 of which no report was received before the close 
of the year. Three hundred and thirty-four animals came into 
the State without the proper permit, many of which, however, 
were accompanied by duly approved certificates of tuberculin 
test made in the States from which they were shipped, and all 
the remaining ones were either tested by agents of the Depart- 
ment, or accounted for as requiring no test. 

During the spring and early summer Massachusetts veteri- 
narians inspected and tagged 1,006 head of cattle that were to 
be sent into other States for pasture, 120 of them having been 
tagged at Brighton. Most of these cattle went into the State 
of New Hampshire, under permit from the Commissioner of 
Agriculture of that State, and on being returned to Massa- 
chusetts were checked up as far as possible by their tag 
numbers. 

The Department keeps records of all animals received at the 
several quarantine stations, also the States from which neat 
cattle are shipped, as shown by the following figures : — 

Receipts of Stock at the Watertown Stockyards for the Year ending Nov. SO, 

1918. 

New Hampshire cattle, 3,790 

Vermont cattle, 8,153 

Massachusetts cattle, . 503 

Calves, 24,805 

Sheep and lambs, 1,334 

Swine, 3,259 

Receipts of Stock at the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company's 
Yards at Somerville for the Year ending Nov. SO, 1918. 

Maine cattle, 3,247 

New Hampshire cattle, 3,956 

Vermont cattle, 16,072 

Massachusetts cattle, 967 

Western cattle, 3,186 

Canada cattle, 550 

Calves, . ■ . . . . 103,088 

Sheep and lambs, 236,620 

Swine, 1,233,500 



1919.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 13 

Receipts of Stock at Brighton for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1918. 

Maine cattle, 11,105 

New Hampshire cattle, . * . 10,249 

Vermont cattle, 6,727 

Massachusetts cattle, . . . . . . . . . 14,839 

New York cattle, 20,656 

Western cattle, 31,066 

Canada cattle, 99 

Calves, 99,272 

Sheep and lambs, 6,289 

Swine, . . . 33,267 

Glandeks. 

The prevalence of glanders among the horses and mules 
owned in the Commonwealth has always been one of the prin- 
cipal conditions toward the relief of which the activities of 
this Department have been directed. 

For many years this disease caused serious monetary losses 
to citizens who used this class of animals for purposes of busi- 
ness or pleasure. Its widespread prevalence was a subject of 
much anxiety especially to those engaged in business requiring 
large numbers of animals worked or stabled under conditions 
favorable to the spread of contagion. 

As with other contagious diseases, glanders, if not controlled, 
spreads with a certainty and rapidity in direct ratio to in- 
creasing numbers of susceptible subjects kept under conditions 
allowing close contact. This has been recently shown by army 
conditions. Glanders early appeared at many points where 
horses and mules had been assembled for service with the 
several allied armies, and owing to conditions so favorable for 
the transmission of the disease from animal to animal it rapidly 
spread to an extent which rendered its control one of the 
serious problems of the veterinary officials, to whom was 
assigned the duty of protecting and maintaining the health of 
the hundreds of thousands of horses and mules so assembled. 

The prevalence of glanders among Massachusetts horses and 
mules has been progressively reduced during the past six years, 
as shown by a tabulation (and chart following) of the Depart- 
ment's records covering a period of twenty years. It will be 
seen that during the past year the number of cases is the 



14 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

lowest recorded during the period mentioned, and that this 
year there has been a reduction of 32 per cent, from the number 
of cases recorded in 1917. 

The successful methods of control heretofore in operation 
have been continued during the past year. They may be 
briefly referred to as comprising the following: — 

Immediate quarantine of all reported cases; prompt killing 
of all clinical cases, followed by disinfection of the premises 
where kept, of the blacksmith shops where shod and of water- 
ing troughs where they were in the habit of drinking; examina- 
tion and re-examination of all contact animals, together with 
application of the several diagnostic tests when necessary; 
extension of the plan of testing whole stables; closing of public 
watering troughs in sections where an outbreak of the disease 
occurs; testing of all horses and mules shipped interstate from 
New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island. 

The Department's records for the year ending Nov. 30, 1918, 
show the following facts : — 

At the end of 1917, 31 animals were under observation. Of 
this number, 19 have been killed as positive cases, 10 have 
been released as free from the disease, and 2 died or were killed 
before final diagnosis was made. 

During the past year 1,003 animals have been examined. Of 
this number, 174 animals proved to be positive cases and were 
destroyed in accordance with the requirements of the law; 14 
died or were killed by owners before diagnosis had been made; 
802 were released as free from the disease; and 7 were still 
held under observation at the end of the year. Five animals 
were killed by order of the Department, post-mortem examina- 
tion of which did not reveal the presence of the disease, and 
full appraised value of which was 1600. One animal was killed 
at owner's request, and no lesions of the disease were found. 

Horses reported as Suspected. 

Brought forward from the year 1917, . . , . . .31 
Arriving from outside of the State and condemned, ... 7 

Reported by renderer, 1 

Reported by inspectors, Department agents, veterinarians, 

owners, etc., 209 

Contact animals examined in stable tests, 786 

1,034 



1919.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



15 



Disposal of Above Horses 

Appraised and killed, positive, 
Reported by Tenderer, positive, 
Killed by owners, no award, positive, . 
Died, positive, 



Killed at owner's request, no lesions found, 
Appraised and killed, no lesions found, 
Killed by owners or died, no lesions found, 
Released as not affected with glanders, 
Awaiting disposition, . . 



180 
1 
8 
4 



193 

1 

5 

16 

812 
7, 



1,034 



Following is a table giving the number of cases of this 
disease covering a period of twenty years. In this table cases 
which have occurred in the city of Boston are shown separately, 
on account of the fact that Boston was for many years the 
storm center of this disease. Special tabulation of the number 
of cases in that city has always been made in order that its 
relative importance to other sections of the State may be 
studied. 

Number of Cases. • 



Year. 



Cases. 



In Boston. 



In Other 
Places. 



Totals. 



1899, 
1900, 
1901, 
1902, 
1903, 
1904, 
1905, 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 
1914, 
1915, 
1916, 
1917, 
1918, 



159 
192 
197 
155 
250 
254 
210 
194 
308 
389 
278 
314 
387 
395 
556 
355 
152 
157 
80 



384 
507 
548 
580 
610 
555 
414 
376 
403 
552 
406 
362 
565 
446 
528 
495 
250 
278 
206 
104 



543 
699 
745 
735 
860 
809 
624 
570 
711 
941 
684 
676 
952 
841 
1,084 
850 
402 
435 
286 
193 



16 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 









_., 
































I 















































































































v— 
















1 




— !— 






















*•> 


* 








s, 






































»• 










N 




































•6 . 








1 ° 






<S 


















































** 


















































^< 






























V 










N. 










*s 


















































~> 


















































t 
































J 








j\ 










s 










1 . 


























l»l 










^ 
































Q 








^+ 










































T 


















^ 














V) 


















b 


































































^s 
















































~" 










«**" 








































•n 


It 
































! 










*s 






































| 










* 

v 


t 

V 




— 


















V 














1 
j 










A 




























u 
















J 
































1** 






1 










*~ 


























































A 
























!*• 


















^ 








»o< 
























V 


















"" 








o- 








































U) 






















Hfc^** 














\ V 














C£ 


^ 
















































u4 


b 

c 




































V* 












P 


<3r 




















B*^ 




























S 


fc 










IsS" 




















1 
< 


















< 


"N 
































* \ 
















"5. 


















^*£ 
















\ * 














o 


> 
















































^q 
Q 


























« 














, > 










<s 








































SV 










k 




















T 1 




























53 




















Hr 





























<s 
























































































/ 


i 










<!j 














o- 


- 


































d 




































8/ 














» 




































-ii 














**■ 


















































"i 


















































«a 












«j| 
























i° 














3 












~»<< 


















































to 
























■i 














* 


















V, 
































o 


















»k""> 






















v 










*i 


















H^ 






























■■* 




































































































o 


















fi) 




















K 












^r 


















V 
































Q 


















































Q 




















X 


















- 












* 




































M 










■*■ 
















































* 








































v 










^ 


























"i 














V 










fc- 


























*!*" 














v 




































•o 
























* V. 


O 


c 


o 


c 


c 


o 


O 


c 


' Q 


o 


O 


o 


c 


« 





c 


c 


« 


c 


o 




c 






a« 


O 


Iq 


O 


k 


c 


lo 


o 


lo 


^ 


k 


Q 


«o 


c 


»< 


c 


y 


c 


•» 





«r 


C 


y 






SV 


N. 


^1 


o 


^ 


>. ts 


- 6c 


Oo 


^ 


x ^ 


v. X3 X3 


1 


»C 


^ 


* <J 


«; 


*c 


*\ 


«J 


> 


> 








3 
2 *■ 


*N 


N 


*• 














] 













































































HO 

O ,/7 

X o 

2f9 



1919.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 17 

The Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals, the Boston Workhorse Relief Association, the Animal 
Rescue League, and the branches of these various associations 
in many cities and towns of the State, have through their 
agents been of material aid to the Department in the work of 
controlling this disease. Their close observation of working 
animal's of all classes has brought to light many showing sus- 
picious symptoms which they have promptly reported to this 
Department, and many of the animals so reported have proved 
to be positive cases of the disease. 

The constant activity of the humane societies in removing 
disabled animals from work, and destroying those which on 
account of extreme age or poor condition are no longer useful, 
is undoubtedly a factor in the suppression of glanders, as such 
animals are very susceptible to this infection. 

The maximum amount, fixed by chapter 646 of the Acts of 
1913, which may be paid for any one animal condemned and 
destroyed on account of being affected with glanders being 
$50, the appraised value of the animals condemned is a subject 
of considerable interest. Of the 193 positive cases of glanders 
occurring during the year, 180 were appraised at a total valua- 
tion of $29,572, the average amount per animal being $164.29. 
On the remaining 13 animals no appraisal was made for the 
following reasons: 1 of them was reported by a Tenderer, the 
disease having been found on autopsy; 11 died or were killed by 
owners before appraisal could be made; and 1 animal killed 
was of no market value. 

Of the 180 horses appraised no award was allowed 'on 9, 7 of 
them being interstate, and 2 not having been in the Common- 
wealth the required twelve months prior to condemnation. 
Of the remaining 171 horses which were appraised, 161 have 
been paid for, the amount paid being $7,960, and 10 are 
awaiting the filing of claims for payment. 



Complement- fixation Test. 
Of the 31 horses under observation at the end of the year 
1917, 8 were condemned, 8 were released, 1 died, 1 was killed 
by owner, and 13 were subjected to the complement-fixation 



18 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

test, with result that 11 of them were condemned and killed, 
and 2 were released as probably free from the disease. 

Five hundred and seventy-three samples of blood were taken 
from 508 horses during the year 1918, and the following dis- 
posal of the animals was made: — 

Animals held over from 1917, disposed of as above, . . . . 13 

Animals released on first test, 383 

Released on second test, .■'■': 24 

Released on third test, . . 7 

Died or killed by owner after first test, . 6 

Died or killed by owner after second test, 2 

Condemned on first test, 48 

Condemned on second test, 14 

Condemned on third test, 3 

Held for further observation, 8 

508 
Ophthalmic-mallein Test. 

This test has been applied to 947 horses during the year. It 
happens that the test in some instances was repeated on the 
same animals, and 1,194 such tests have been made. The 
results are as follows: — 

Tests giving positive reaction, . 184 

Tests giving no reaction, 868 

Tests giving unsatisfactory results, 142 

1,194 

In the so-called "stable tests," or tests of all animals in 
stables where glanders has been found, 786 horses have been 
tested in 40 stables, and among them 87 cases of glanders have 
been found. In this connection it might be mentioned that of 
the total number of 193 cases of glanders that occurred during 
the year, 100 did not show any clinical symptoms and therefore 
would have escaped detection by the ordinary physical examina- 
tion. This fact shows the value of the several diagnostic tests 
now available. 

Interstate Horses. 
Horses, asses and mules shipped to Massachusetts from the 
States of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode 
Island must be accompanied by a permit from the Commis- 



1919.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 19 

sioner of Animal Industry. This regulation was established on 
account of the prevalenace of glanders among the horses of 
the States mentioned, and in order that upon arrival the 
animals might be immediately located and examined by agents 
of this Department. 

The number of horses, mules and asses shipped from these 
States has decreased from 4,764 in the year 1917 to 4,425 in 
the year ending Nov. 30, 1918. Among these animals very 
few cases of glanders have been found, as shown by the fol- 
lowing statistics : — 

Equine Animals from New York, New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island. 

Mules, 5 

Horses, 4,420 

4,425 

Disposal of Above Animals. 

Died soon after arrival, ........ 2 

Condemned as affected with glanders, ..... 4 

Released upon physical examination, 2,882 

Released after test, . . • . . . . . . . 1,537 

4,425 

The small number of animals condemned, as shown by the 
above table, is worthy of notice. Many of the animals brought 
from the above-mentioned States are of the better class, being 
highly bred horses used for carriage work and breeding purposes. 
The secondhand horses, which are trafficked in and sent from 
the markets of one State to those of another for purpose of 
public sale, have been specially watched on account of their 
being considered more liable to be subjects of contagious 
disease than the higher class animals, and if not accompanied 
by a satisfactory certificate of test have been tested on arrival 
by agents of the Department. 

Rabies. 

On account of rabies being readily communicable to man by 

the bites of animals affected with that disease the work of 

control and eradication is primarily of importance as a measure 

in protection of the public health. A certain monetary loss 



20 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

also occurs by the infection of valuable dogs and other domestic 
animals, every species of which is susceptible to the disease. 

The dog only need be considered as a spreader of the disease 
in Massachusetts, and we have found the ownerless or stray 
dog to be the principal offender in this direction. The dog 
which has proper care is under constant observation and if he 
shows any abnormal condition is a subject of notice, and pro- 
fessional or official attention is called to him, whereas in the 
ownerless or stray dog rabies may be well advanced in its 
course and other animals may become affected before he is the 
subject of anyone's particular attention. Unfortunately the 
dog license laws are not strictly enforced in all cities and towns, 
and therefore what might be a great factor in the control and 
eradication of this disease is not operative. In our opinion, if 
the present laws were more strictly enforced than they have 
been hitherto, or more effective ones were enacted, a marked 
reduction in the prevalence of rabies would result. 

Many complications in the control and eradication of other 
infectious diseases among other species of animals are not en- 
countered in the control of rabies, for the reason that there is 
much less traffic in dogs than in other domestic animals which 
are used for production of food material or for business purposes, 
and also because their market value is on an average very 
much less. It is possible also to confine dogs at much less 
expense than larger animals, and they generally endure restraint 
with less danger to their health. 

Prompt action by local inspectors and the co-operation of 
town officials with this Department generally result in the 
suppression of an outbreak of the disease before its extension 
in any community becomes serious. Measures necessarily 
taken to this end cause more or less inconvenience and trouble 
to dog owners and occasionally subject public officials to unjust 
criticism, but the danger to human life from the existence of 
this infection justifies the application of such measures as have 
been found effective in its control. 

Following is a general outline of the Department's methods 
in this work under the present regulations : — ■ 

Upon report being made to the Department of Animal In- 
dustry that a person has been bitten by a dog, the inspector 



1919.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 21 

of animals of the town or city in which it occurs is ordered to 
make an examination of the animal, and, even if it appears to 
be healthy, to have it restrained for a period of fourteen days 
for the purpose of observation. This regulation is deemed neces- 
sary for the reason that competent authorities have proven that 
in some instances the bite of a dog infected with rabies may 
communicate the infection fourteen days before the animal 
itself shows clinical symptoms. If at the end of this period no 
symptoms of rabies have developed, the animal may be re- 
leased. In case a person is bitten by a dog which upon 
examination by the inspector of animals, or any other person, 
shows evidence of already being affected with rabies, this 
animal is immediately confined in strict quarantine. If it is 
subsequently killed or dies, its head is at once sent to the 
Department's office, and a laboratory examination of the brain 
is made for the purpose of confirming the diagnosis. Informa- 
tion as to the laboratory findings is promptly communicated 
to the person or persons who have been bitten. The State 
Department of Health is given the information received in 
every case of dog bite reported to this office, whether the bite 
has been inflicted by an animal suspected of rabies or not. We 
also order the local inspector of animals to ascertain not only 
the names of all persons who have been bitten by dogs sus- 
pected of rabies, but to find out if animals have also been 
bitten, and if so to place the same in quarantine for a period 
of at least ninety days. All dogs which are known to have 
been in contact with a rabid animal, whether or not it appears 
that they have been bitten by it, are also placed in quarantine 
for the same period. 

If an unusual number of cases of rabies is found .to exist in 
any town or city, the selectmen or the mayor or board of 
aldermen are asked to issue a restraining order, under the pro- 
visions of section 158 of chapter 102 of the Revised Laws. 
Such an order obliges all dog owners to confine their animals 
to their own premises for a certain period, or take them there- 
from only on leash. This restraining order is much more 
effective in the local control of an outbreak than is an order 
which compels owners only to muzzle the animals but not 
restrain them, as a muzzled animal let loose may in some way 



22 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



get the muzzle off and bite other animals or people. A muzzled 
dog at large may, therefore, become much more dangerous than 
an unmuzzled one which is at all times confined upon owner's 
premises or taken therefrom only on leash. Dogs found 
running at large while a restraining order issued by town or 
city authorities is in force may be killed on the issuance of a 
warrant for the same to a police officer. It has been found 
necessary to issue general restraining orders in four towns of 
the Commonwealth during the past year. These orders were 
for periods of ninety days. 

Our force of district agents, most of whom are veterinarians 
located in different parts of the State, together with the local 
inspectors of animals, of whom there is one or more in every 
city and town of the State, constitutes an organization by 
which systematic local control of an outbreak of this disease 
can generally be accomplished within a reasonably short time. 

During the past two years we have been in constant fear of 
local outbreaks of this disease on account of its unusual preva- 
lence in the neighboring State of Connecticut. In that State 
during this period rabies has prevailed extensively in many 
different towns some of which are contiguous to the Massa- 
chusetts line, and a spread of the contagion across the line 
into this State might reasonably be expected. 

During the year ending Nov. 30, 1918, 345 animals were 
reported to the Department for diagnosis, observation or 
quarantine on account of the prevalence of rabies, and 58 were 
brought forward from the year 1917. The records have been 
classified as follows : — 

Animals suspected of rabies, 95 

Animals exposed to rabies (51 reported in 1917, 103 in 1918), . 154 
Animals which have inflicted bites upon persons (7 reported in 1917, 

147 in 1918), 154 



Animals suspected of Rabies. 





Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Cats. 


Drakes. 


Diagnosis questionable, .... 


61 
11 
12 


8 
1 


1 


1 





1919.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



23 



Of the 61 dogs "diagnosis positive/' 13 had bitten persons. 

Of the total 13 cases classed as "diagnosis questionable," 3 
dogs were reported as being affected with rabies, but from 
description of symptoms and as heads were not obtainable for 
examination they are not recorded as positive cases; 3 dogs 
after showing symptoms indicating rabies disappeared and 
could not be located; 5 showing symptoms gave negative 
diagnosis to laboratory examination; on 1 laboratory diagnosis 
was unsatisfactory; and the head of 1 animal, a heifer, arrived 
at laboratory in such a state of decomposition that examination 
could not be made. Of the 12 dogs, 2 had bitten persons. 

Animals exposed to Rabies. 





Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Cats. 


Number released after a quarantine of ninety days, 


117 


1 


- 


Number killed, no symptoms having developed, 


26 


- 


1 


Number killed, positive symptoms having developed, 


5 


7 


- 


Number still held under observation, .... 


4 


- 


- 



Animals which have inflicted Bites upon Persons. 



Dogs. 



Number killed immediately, no diagnosis, 

Number killed during quarantine, no symptoms having developed, 

Number released after fourteen days' quarantine, 

Number still held under observation, 



1 

24 

124 

5 



Fifty-eight animals which were under observation at the 
close of the year 1917 were disposed of during 1918, as follows: — 

Dogs killed at request of owners, not having shown symptoms of the 

disease, . 1 

Dogs released from observation, no symptoms having developed, . 57 



There have been examined in the laboratory during the past 
year the brains of 58 dogs, 4 cows and 1 cat. Of this number, 
27 dogs and 3 cows showed positive evidence of the disease. 
In the case of 2 dogs the diagnosis was questionable, and in 27 



24 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



dogs and 1 cat the diagnosis was negative, and the brains of 
2 dogs and 1 heifer were so decomposed at time of examination 
that no diagnosis could be made. Of the 345 animals reported 
for observation, diagnosis or quarantine 33 were, as far as the 
Department could determine, unlicensed and ownerless dogs, 
14 of which proved to be positive cases of the disease. 

The following table shows the number of positive cases of 
rabies by cities and towns. 





Citt or Town. 


Dogs. 


Cows. 


City or Town. 


Dogs. 


Cows. 


Barre, .... 


2 


_ 


New Braintree, 


1 


1 


Blackstone, 




2 


- 


Newton, . 






1 


- 


Boston (6) : — 








North Attleborougr 


it 




2 


- 


Boston proper, 




2 


- 


North Brookfield, 






1 


1 


Brighton, 




1 


- 


Oxford, . 






1 


- 


Dorchester, . 




2 


- 


Paxton, . 








2 


- 


West Roxbury, 






- 


Petersham, 1 








3 


1 


Braintree, 






- 


Plainville, 








2 


1 


Charlton, 




1 


- 


Quincy, . 








5 


- 


Dighton, 






2 


Rehoboth, 








5 


- 


Dudley, . 






- 


Rutland, 








1 


- 


Easton, . 






- 


Sheffield, 








1 


- 


Halifax, . 






- 


Shrewsbury, 








1 


- 


Hanson, . 






- 


Southbridge, 








- 


1 


Holden, . 






- 


Taunton, 








1 


1 


Lancaster, 






- 


Waltham, 








2 


- 


Leicester, 






- 


Webster, . 








1 


- 


Leominster, 






- 


Worcester, 








5 


- 


Mansfield, 






- 


Wrentham, 








1 


- 


Methuen, 






- 












Middleborough, 






~ 


Totals, . . 


66 


8 



1 One drake in this town was found to be a positive case. 



Following is a chart showing the proven cases of rabies in the 
several species of animals covering the period from 1905 to 
1918, inclusive. 



1919.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



25 




26 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Hog Cholera. 

Our work in hog cholera control and eradication by means of 
preventive inoculation has increased considerably during the 
past year. Requests for treatment have continued to come in 
so rapidly that it has at times taxed our ability to attend to 
them as promptly as we have. desired. This increase may be 
attributed chiefly to two factors: first, that more swine owners 
have become convinced that an immunity of their swine against 
hog cholera is possible by the administration at the proper 
time of the treatment which we are providing, and second, that 
many additional pig clubs have been organized, the members 
of which in nearly all instances request inoculation for their 
swine, and it generally happens that each member of a pig 
club owns only one or two animals and our agents have conse- 
quently been obliged to travel over a large territory in order 
to treat comparatively few animals. In a great many instances 
also the pig club work requires two visits on the part of an 
agent, the first, for the "serum only" or temporary treatment, 
and a second, six weeks later, for the simultaneous or per- 
manent treatment. We are pleased to say, however, that all 
requests have been complied with, even though our force of 
agents has been depleted by reason of the fact that four of 
them have been called into military service. 

During the year preventive inoculation has been adminis- 
tered to 56,768 animals. This number represents 1,432 herds 
located in 218 cities and towns. Our records show that we 
have treated 680 more herds than last year in 28 more cities 
and towns. The following list shows the cities and towns in 
which hog cholera prevention work has been carried on during 
the past year: — 



City or Town. 


Herds. 


Animals 
treated. 


City or Town. 


Herds. 


Animals 
treated. 


Abington, 

Acton, 

Adams, . 

Agawam, 

Amesbury, 

Amherst, 

Andover, 

Arlington, 








6 

4 
5 

17 
3 

12 
2 
1 


12 

149 

15 

974 

30 

60 

20 

2 


Ashburnham, 
Athol,, . 
Attleboro, 
Auburn, 
Ayer, 

Barnstable, . 
Beeket, . 
Bedford, 






3 
2 
4 
1 
8 
28 
1 
2 


37 
16 

71 

69 

1,696 

100 

5 

7 



1919.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



27 



City or Town. 


Herds. 


Animals 
treated. 


City or Town. 


Herds. 


Animals 
treated. 


Belchertown, . 


1 


5 


Lexington, 


15 


2,783 


Belmont, 






7 


1,681 


Lincoln, 




10 


702 


Bernardston, . 






2 


12 


Littleton, 




14 


1,428 


Beverly, . 






4 


73 


Longmeadow, 




4 


119 


Billerica, 






2 


172 


Lowell, . 




10 


448 


Blandford, 






1 


13 


Ludlow, 




17 


360 


Bolton, . 






4 


111 


Lunenburg, . 




1 


1 


Boston, . 






10 


1,148 


Lynn, 




4 


39 


Bourne, . 






10 


142 


Maiden, 




1 


1 


Boxborough, . 






1 


23 


Manchester, . 




3 


82 


Boylston, 






2 


9 


Marblehead, . 




20 


411 


Braintree, 






1 


7 


Marion, . 




10 


119 


Bridgewater, . 






5 


329 


Marshfield, . 




6 


37 


Brimfield, 






2 


4 


Maynard, 




1 


3 


Brockton, 






9 


1,668 


Medfield, 




1 


342 


Brookfield, 






2 


46 


Medford, 




2 


341 


Brookline, 






8 


132 


Melrose, 




1 


4 


Burlington, 






4 


416 


Merrirnac, 




3 


35 


Cambridge, 






1 


20 


Methuen, 




10 


157 


Canton, . 






3 


4 


Middleborough, 




3 


79 


Charlemont, . 






1 


3 


Middleton, . 




2 


30 


Charlton, 






1 


104 


Milford, 




3 


21 


Chatham, 






1 


3 


Millbury, 




5 


85 


Chelmsford, . 






4 


138 


Millis, . 




1 


60 


Cheshire, 






1 


2 


Milton, . 




2 


327 


Chesterfield, . 






1 


1 


Monson, 




1 


124 


Chicopee, 






45 


264 


Montague, 




2 


9 


Cohasset, 






4 


34 


Nantucket, . 




17 


24 


Concord, 






6 


295 


Natick, . 




5 


311 


Cummington, 






1 


1 


Needham, . > 




7 


929 


Dan vers, 






4 


689 


New Bedford, 




3 


28 


Dartmouth, 






1 


11 


Newbury, 




5 


26 


Dedham, 






5 


158 


Newburyport, 




17 


123 


Deerfield, 






1 


2 


Newton, 




7 


122 


Dennis, . 






1 


2 


Norfolk, 




2 


212 


Dover, 






7 


296 


North Adams, 




12 


579 


Dracut, . 






7 


133 


Northampton, 




22 


748 


Dudley, . 






1 


1 


North Andover, 




3 


65 


Easthampton, 






25 


113 


North Attleboroug 


h, : 


2 


62 


East Longmeadow, 






21 


107 


North Reading, 




2 


109 


Easton, . 






4 


35 


Northbridge, 




3 


121 


Essex, 






2 


19 


Northfield, . 




2 


147 


Erving, . 






1 


10 


Norwell, 




1 


25 


Fall River, 






1 


30 


Oxford, . 




5 


96 


Fitchburg, 






66 


944 


Palmer, . 




5 


139 


Foxborough, . 






4 


51 


Paxton, . 




1 


33 


Framingham, . 






5 


505 


Peabody, 




11 


610 


Franklin, 






2 


2 


Pepperell, 




3 


91 


Gardner, 






50 


492 


Pittsfield, 




51 


1,828 


Gill, 






2 


86 


Plymouth, 




9 


437 


Gloucester, 






30 


1,280 


Randolph, 




1 


3 


Grafton, . 






58 


763 


Raynham, 




1 


70 


Granby, . 






1 


35 


Reading, 




1 


164 


Great Barrington, 






1 


34 


Revere, . 




6 


931 


Greenfield, 






11 


898 


Richmond, . 




1 


25 


Groton, . 






6 


100 


Rockport, 




4 


22 


Hadley, . 






2 


156 


Rowley, . 




2 


19 


Hamilton, 






3 


17 


Russell, . 




1 


3 


Hampden, 






1 


6 


Rutland, 




4 


124 


Harvard, 






29 


489 


Salem, . 




5 


2,098 


Harwich, 






4 


142 


Salisbury, 




1 


3 


Haverhill, 






5 


81 


Sandwich, 




6 


8 


Hingham, 






5 


9 


Saugus, . 




5 


127 


Holden, . 






9 


61 


Scituate, 




2 


60 


Holyoke, 






23 


847 


Seekonk, 




13 


530 


Hubbardston, 






2 


72 


Sharon, . 




1 


28 


Hudson, . 






8 


88 


Shelburne, 




2 


4 


Hull, 






6 


156 


Sherborn, 




6 


202 


Ipswich, . 






4 


216 


Shirley, . 




1 


285 


Kingston, 






9 


25 


Shrewsbury, . 




1 


223 


Lakeville, 






1 


214 


Somerset, 




6 


3 


Lancaster, 






6 


220 


South Hadley, 




13 


110 


Lanesborough, 






4 


116 


Southampton, 




1 


4 


Lawrence, 






5 


18 


Southborough, 




3 


59 


Lee, 






1 


8 


Southbridge, 




1 


2 


Lenox, 






22 


167 


Southwick, . 




13 


65 


Leominster, 






3 


18 


Springfield, . 




40 


2,165 



28 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



City or Town. 


Herds. 


Animals 
treated. 


City or Town. 


Herds. 


Animals 
treated. 


Sterling, .... 


3 


185 


Wellesley, 


1 


69 


Stockbridge, 








2 


18 


Wenham, 




1 


13 


Stoneham, 








4 


18 


West Boylston, 




1 


2 


Stoughton, 








1 


536 


West Newbury, 




2 


72 


Sturbridge, 








4 


8 


West Springfield, 




14 


77 


Sudbury, 








1 


46 


Westborough, 




3 


298 


Sunderland, 








1 


35 


Westfield, 




20 


370 


Swansea, 








1 


454 


Westford, 






2 


11 


Templeton, 








15 


37 


Weston, . 






1 


35 


Tewksbury, 








1 


879 


Westport, 






1 


54 


Tisbury, . 








1 


83 


Westwood, 






6 


319 


Topsfield, 








2 


44 


Weymouth, 






2 


215 


Townsend, 








2 


12 


Whitman, 






2 


2 


Tyngsborough 








5 


392 


Wilbraham, 






8 


127 


Upton, 








. 1 


4 


Williamsburg, 




2 


15 


Uxbridge, 








2 


105 


Williamstown, 




6 


40 


Wakefield, 








5 


173 


Wilmington, . 




2 


71 


Walpole, . 








10 


28 


Winchendon, 




3 


28 


Waltham, 








20 


3,795 


Winchester, . 




2 


45 


Wareham, 








8 


39 


Woburn, 




7 


189 


Warren, . 








3 


56 


Worcester, 




29 


4,759 


Water town, 








5 


292 


Worthington, 




1 


3 


Way land, 








1 


2 


Wrentham, 




8 


240 


Webster, . . 








8 


76 


Yarmouth, 




2 


3 



We constantly emphasize the fact that in order to obtain 
the best results and at the least expense to the swine owners 
it is advisable to administer the treatment before infection 
appears and while the animals are in a condition of health. 
This fact has gradually become more fully realized by owners, 
with the result that a greater number than formerly request 
treatment before the disease appears in their herds. The fol- 
lowing table, covering five years of the Department's work, 
clearly shows the correctness of this statement, the number of 
healthy herds to which we have applied treatment showing a 
very considerable increase, and the number of infected herds 
showing a considerable decrease. 





1914. 


1915. 


1916. 


1917. 


1918. 


Herds infected at time of treatment, 

Herds apparently healthy at time of treatment, 


65 
2 


150 

95 


192 
113 


282 
470 


157 
1,275 


Totals 


67 


245 


305 


752 


1,432 



Our field men are instructed to explain in detail to owmers 
the two forms of treatment and the economical reasons for 
their application; also to acquaint them w r ith the requirements 
which we consider essential in order to obtain the best results, 



1919.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 29 

such as clean and well-bedded quarters both before and after 
administration of treatment, and a restricted diet during that 
period. Such explanations have been of more or less educa- 
tional value as they have resulted in an improvement of general 
sanitation, which condition owners are realizing finally results 
in increased monetary returns. 

We have deviated somewhat from our former rule of not 
administering treatment in infected herds unless the infection 
was found to be very slight. During the past year we have 
so modified this rule as to allow treatment in herds where the 
infection has been more or less extensive, believing that in 
many instances we could save a number of animals which 
otherwise might die and become a total loss. While we do not 
advise indiscriminate treatment of infected animals, particularly 
those showing a secondary infection, as such will ordinarily 
succumb, we believe that the value of animals saved by treat- 
ment in accordance with our present rule more than com- 
pensates the owner for the expense of treatment of those which 
are not saved. By an extension of the treatment of infected 
animals as above referred to, the percentage of mortality has 
been somewhat increased. As, however, we always have in 
mind not only the successful control of the disease and the 
establishment of a low record of mortality, but at the same 
time the economical aspect of the problem from the standpoint 
of the owner, we have felt justified in the modification of our 
former rules governing our work among infected animals. 

The unusual prevalence of hemorrhagic septicemia among 
swine the past year has resulted in the death of many animals, 
and in instances where the cause of death could not be dif- 
ferentiated as between that disease and hog cholera, the 
apparent mortality record of the latter disease has been seriously 
affected. . 

The following table, giving comparative statistics for the 
five years in which we have been engaged in this work, presents 
the results more concisely than can be done in any other way: — 



30 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



00 

>-H 

?^ 

l-H 

Ob 

l-H 
O} 
1—1 



C3 
*■» 

© 
©> 



e 

^ 



53 








OS 


CM 


lO 


r> 




Oi Oi 


lO CO 


TjH 


«* 




co 


CO 


1> 


»o 




lO 


»0 CM 


1— ( 


CO 


00 




CM 




T-l 




lO CO 


o 


CO_ 
















1> 


^r « 


1—1 


CO 


»H 
















1— 1 






















•^r 




CM 


cr. 


1> 


CM 




00 lO 


tH tM 


CM 


-* 




^ 


io 


l> 


oo 




CM 1> 


CM >* 


>o 


CM 


i> 




CO 




CM 




oo 


iO 


co 
















TH" ^ 


»o~ 


o 


rH 


TH 












CM 


?H 


^ 






I> 


CO 


CO 


CM 




1> I> 


CO CO 


o 


i— 1 




IQ 


io 


*tf 


OS 




Tt< 


Tf 


os 


CM 


<o 




CM 




i—l 




1> CO 


CO. 


CO 
















t)h" 


co" 


oo" 


CM 


r-t 












i-t 


tH 


CM 






CM 


l> 


]> 


o 




O 1> 


CO CM 


CO 


OS 




CM 


CM 


1> 


iO 




o 


CM 


CM 




1A 


T-t 


<M 




1—1 




co 


00 T-H 


l-H 


T}H 


a* 












o" 


»o" 


CO" 




tH 












1—1 




1— 1 






o 


O 


1 


to 




00 to 


rH CM 


os 


CM 




CM 


oo 




CO 




CM 


OS 


i— i 




*£ 












^ os 


iO 


o 


io 


en 
















rH 




tH 






















• 




• 






CD 
CQ 


>> N _ 


• 


CO 














o 


SJ /-N 




fH 














^cj 


Pi -P 




© 














-p 


© Pi 




rB 
















H © 












^ 






T3 


o3 © 




-o 








T3 






PI 


^ fH 

ft © 

o3 a 




© 








© 
fH 
© 






03 

CO 




-p 
a 
© 








-fj 












«<H 








CO 






"o3 


^S CQ 




a 








"8 






a 
a 

o3 "^ 


o3 t3 




,fh 




• 




'a 

03 


• 


■^3 


a © 

•a * 

o3 TJ 
© 


• 


•|H 
•P 

d 
© 








-P 

o 






CD -P 


© -p 

fH O 




a 




• 




a 


CD 


00 


^ CD 


03 «J 

=*H 
© "Pi 

co "-' 


• 


-p 

03 








CO 

o3 


f-l 

CD 




ncluding in 
tment (per 




© 

fH 




© 
o3 




-p 

a 

CD 

a 

-p 
o3 


+3 
CQ 

'a 

c3 


"<S> 

e 

co 


gatment. The 
as treatment in 


• 


-p 

CO 

d 

O 

© 

d 

03 
-p 




a 




© 


CO 

o3 


52 


»-< 03 




l-H 

d 




CO 

o3 




-p 

s 


-p 


1 


-P fH 

a -p 

<D 


. 


a 

CQ 






3 


d 

CD 


e 

<© 


H ">^ 


fH O 
-P fli 


co" 


T3 




*co 
O 
C 

bD 

o3 




CD 
CO 

o 

,d 


a 

-p 

o3 
CD 
f-i 
-P 


s 


CD o 

r a 


ceiving the simultaneous 

eatment. 

lera following the simultam 


id 

fH 
© 


o3 




• rH 

0) 

> 

"-P 
c3 
bD 

© 

a 

o3 

,d 
o 


r O r 
© 
-p 

o 

© 

.a 

<D 

rQ 
O 

d 


m d 

CD 
-P 
O 

CD 

t|H 
# Cj 

CD 

rO 
O 

d 


a 
B 

CD 
CO 

o 

• l— 1 

d 

• l-l 
CO 

13 


e 

f 

00 

5^ 


eiving "serum only 
aneous treatment. 
Dlera following ' ' ser 


© 
-p 
o 

© 

t|H 

PI 
• fH 

© 
■P 
03 
© 

fH 

-P 

CO 

f-H 

o3 

a 

a 

03 

t»H 

O 

fH 


d 

O 

a 

d 

fH 
© 

CO 

rd 
-P 

o 

«bD 

d 




CD 
-P 
M 
O 
ft 


o 
q 

p4 
CO 

-O 
u 
© 


o 
a 

p4 

CO 

cU 


CD 

rd 

CD 
-P 

o 

CD 

a 

• r-l 


« 
^ 


animals rec 
g for simult 
rom hog ch< 


f animals re 
at time of tr 
from hog cho 


"2 

o 

f-H 

"o 

t|H 

>> 

-+3 IM 




CO 


rd 


*4 




© 

a 


^^ 






«1H 


r H— 1 


<4H 




t +- 1 pi 


-P -P 




CQ 
p4 


o 


O 


O 




o p >> 


° >>>> 


o © 

a ° 




fH 


(H 


fH 




^ P.t5 


fHH^.if 


p 




CD 


CD 


CD 


CD 




© >ir3 


© -pS 


a 




fH 


,Q 


rQ 


r*2 




rQ I C3 
£H O -P 

BOM 






fH 

J ft 
o v — 




-(J 


a 


a 


a 




-p 

o 




s 


a 


9 


3 




Jz: § 


P^ o 




o 


& 


£ 


5? 




£ s 


H 


H 



1919.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



31 



iC 


T»H 


(^ 


iO 


CI 


1> 


1—1 


^ 




^ 


o 


O 


t^ 


t^ 


<tf 


oo 




o 



00 b- 

i— i io 
i—l CO 



LO 

03 



00 

o 

X 



^ o 
o 



-S3 



&3 









bl) 


c 






fl 


3 
« 






£ 


o 






o 


s 






;-M 


•-h 






o 


S3 




T3 


Tl 






© 


o> 




73 
CO 


3 


T3 

43 


5^ 


a 
a 


a 






m 


02 












m 
T3 


o3 

a 


03 

a 




f-< 








Q 


a 


a 




A 


CJ 


03 




=+H 


«4H 


<4-H 




O 


O 


o 




u 


u 


FH 




<D 


co 


co 




4-> 


rO 


42 




£ 


a 


a 




3 


2 


3 




fc 


£ 


£ 



CO 
CO 

l> 

o" 
o 



q 
co" 

CO 



co 



CO 
01 



T3 
CO 



CO 

42 

a 


Pj 



o 



■1 ja 



CD 73 

!3 *> 

"5 +> 

•a ,2 

co o 

& a 

a s 

g 42 

- g 

SB § 

t * 

<& CD 

-a £ 

fi o 

o3 3 

.2 X! 

o • - 

;3 si 

O .2 



to 73 

03 pj 

'55 5 

o .2 

fl ■§ 

03 G 



S >> a 

P e « 



<u o -' 
co . cd 

CO >> CO 

.2 fc 03 
—> <p cd 

$ o ® 

rl £3 " 

•^ O -^ 
TJ'*" 43 

cd 73 c> 

* 1 * 

to ? ^ 

co c3 rt 

>> £ T3 
T 1 O *-* 

^2 

^ Ml 
03^0 

•as® 

-S £ § 
^ 5 >» 



o 5 -2 



02 S >> 

T3 ™ ■+» 

■sll 

CD o .9 



5 x 



8 ^® 

is 

■+1 d 






g^ 



.2 ^ 

CO S 

T3 03 

CD KJ 

«3 "3 

•tn C 

co 3 

J a 

u s 

CD * rt 

^ 3 

co 2 

o3 co 

4> , 



c3 



s .s 



CD CD 
>h T3 

CD =3 



CD g 

rQ CD 

T3 i* 

_CD to 

n 

a .2 

CD c3 

CD 3 

►* CD 



03 

.2 g 

CO i^J 



1 S3 

4= 



bO 



73 a> 

CD CO 

a 

, "O M 
) CD O 

e3 CD 



o 
o 

CD 03 B 
^5 -Q w 

^ S S 

.2 a o 

^43-C 
^ CD 

CO fcn -Q 

rj O s 

agS 

a -2 

03 O 

_ -3 



> > 

CD O 

ft m 



CD ^ 
■°i 

CO F — 

-^ to 

s "J 
J 2 
3 s 

1 5 



f5 W 



P a 
S ,2 
^ F! 



A 

CD 43 -g 
03 to 

ail 

CD 
73 CD 

3 nQ 



2 fl 

-fl 03 



S > a 



o s 

o p 

■* X! 

™ .2 



o 

a 

II ,S 03 
R p£3 CD 

^ a 



T3 O 



43 
* 

03 



03 rH 

a 3 

a p 

CO ^ 

o3 CD 

£ . * 

% V >■ 

O CD "-< 

■1-1 rt ^J 

"*-* ^ |-< 

g.S 2 



5 -3 .2 T3 

cC o3 43 -^ cd 

» M ^ 3 « 

« a H .2 a 

■Ti 03 3 +j 

_. m a ^ 

.2 S "2 5 * 



2 -S ^ 

a> ^ 'oS 

to - • — 
to 



M o3 o3 3 
rf rr! 3 



CD 

O ® 

CO (H 

•* ® ^2 

T3 

CD 
O 43 



R 43 
CD H 



O <P 43 
^ T3 -p 

" N a 



•3 03 -^ 
CD S 



CD 3 O 



4t> 
CD '(D 

>> 2 

4? a 

H 8 



32 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

The number of herds treated does not represent the total 
number of visits made to premises by our agents. Thus, 
although the total number of herds in which treatment was 
given was 1,432, this required 2,421 visits. There were also 
approximately 100 visits made at which it was necessary to 
postpone work on account of unsanitary surroundings. In addi- 
tion to the above, 75 visits were made to herds which were 
reported as infected, but where no treatment was administered 
for the reason that the animals were- too sick to treat, having 
passed that stage of infection at which treatment would be of 
avail; also 39 visits were made where no hog cholera was found. 

In connection with our record of work in prevention of hog 
cholera it seems necessary to call attention to the unusual 
prevalence of hemorrhagic septicemia among swine during the 
past year. The clinical symptoms of this disease so nearly 
resemble those of hog cholera that considerable special investi- 
gation, such as a large number of autopsies followed by careful 
laboratory examination, is often necessary before a positive 
diagnosis can be arrived at. The organism which produces 
hemorrhagic septicemia, B. Suisepticus, is normally the in- 
habitant of the nasal passages of a great many healthy swine, 
and may not be of a particularly virulent character; but when 
for any reason an animal's vitality becomes lowered and a 
corresponding lessened resistance to infection is present, as 
sometimes happens after the simultaneous treatment for hog 
cholera has been administered, then the organism mentioned 
appears to increase in virulency and active symptoms of 
hemorrhagic septicemia appear. It is therefore often difficult, 
when symptoms of both diseases are present, to determine 
which is the primary infection and which the secondary. When, 
however, we are able to determine that the animals are in- 
fected with hemorrhagic septicemia successful treatment is 
possible, the disease in many instances being promptly checked 
by the administration of a bacterin prepared for that purpose. 
The value of this treatment, which was more or less experi- 
mental in the early part of the year, has been fully proven by 
its successful use on a relatively large number of animals 
treated. It has been applied during the year to 5,653 animals 
in 45 different herds with 123 deaths reported by the owners. 



1919.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 33 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 

Anthrax. — This is a disease existing in many different parts 
of the world, causing the death of many thousands of animals 
and occurring secondarily in man. The infection is found in 
horses and also in cattle, sheep and other cloven-hoofed animals. 
The most common method of transmission to the human sub- 
ject is by the handling of hides taken from animals which have 
been infected with the disease. 

Although reports from different sections of the country in- 
dicate that the spread of this disease is on the increase, the 
number of cases actually occurring in this State during the past 
year is small. Owing, however, to the high mortality rate 
accompanying its prevalence we deem it necessary upon its 
positive diagnosis to immediately put in force all available 
precautions against its spread. 

Some of the clinical symptoms of this disease so closely 
resemble those of hemorrhagic septicemia that a differential 
diagnosis can only be made by a laboratory examination. It is 
therefore our custom in all reported cases to have the field 
diagnosis confirmed by a laboratory examination before record- 
ing the cases as positive. Preventive inoculation of exposed 
animals is always advised and is administered unless the owner 
objects thereto. This inoculation confers an immunity against 
the disease for at least twelve months in a majority of cases, 
but as the spores of the causative agent may remain lodged in 
the soil in an active state for a period of years, it becomes 
necessary to annually apply the inoculation to all animals on 
premises known to be infected. 

We require that carcasses of affected animals be deeply 
buried and covered with quicklime or burned if possible. We 
also advise that the areas surrounding the burial places of these 
carcasses be fenced to prevent grazing by other animals where 
the soil may be infected, and that these areas be burned over 
every season for the purpose of destroying any infection which 
may have come to the surface. 

During the past year the disease has occurred only in cattle, 
12 head on 7 different premises having been found to be 
affected. Of these 12 animals 1 was in the town of Gardner, 



34 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



1 in Norfolk, 1 in Orange, 1 in Savoy, 3 were in the town of 
Sheffield and 5 in the town of Templeton. The preventive 
inoculation has been applied to 127 head of cattle and 6 horses 
located on 9 different premises. 

Reports of the existence of anthrax on 9 premises in 7 dif- 
ferent towns proved upon investigation to be unfounded. In 
one case the cause of death was found to be blackleg. In 
another case the animals recovered. On the cases reported 
from 5 of the 9 premises in 3 of the 7 towns laboratory diagnosis 
was negative; the specimens submitted from one town were 
too decomposed for a proper examination, and specimens from 
another were diagnosed as not a contagious disease. 

Blackleg. — This disease, very prevalent in many different 
parts of the world and causing severe losses to cattle owners by 
a high death rate especially among young cattle, is very ef- 
fectively controlled in Massachusetts by preventive inoculation 
administered to herds on premises where it appears or has at 
any time been known to prevail. 

During the winter and when cattle are fed in the stable the 
disease rarely appears. It is therefore our custom to inoculate 
such animals as are about to be turned out into pastures where 
the disease has previously existed, immediately before they 
leave the barns in the spring. 

We have had 17 fatal cases of the disease reported this year, 
exactly the same number as in 1917. They occurred on 10 
different premises. We have increased the number of pre- 
ventive inoculations, however, immunizing 1,083 animals on 
119 different premises in 43 towns, as follows: — 



Premises. 

Adams, 1 

Amherst, 1 

Ashburnham, . . . . .4 

Ashby, ..... 8 

Ashfield, 1 

Becket, 2 

Brimfield, 1 

Cheshire, 1 

Chester, 2 

Clinton, 1 

Colrain, 2 



Dalton, 




Pre 


mises. 
1 


Granville, . 






1 


Great Barrington, 
Greenwich, 






4 

1 


Harvard, 






2 


Hinsdale, . 






1 


Holyoke, 

Huntington, 

Lee, 






3 
1 

6 


Leicester, . 






2 


Lenox, 






1 



1919.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



35 







Premises. 








Premises. 


Littleton, ... 


Sandisfield, . . 1 


Middlefield, 






4 


Savoy, 








1 


Montague, . 






3 


Shelburne, . 








4 


New Marlborough, 






4 


Southampton, 








3 


Northampton, . 






3 


Sterling, 








1 


Orange, 






7 


Templeton, 








1 


Peru, . 






1 


Tyringham, 








1 


Pittsfield, . 






1 


Warwick, . 








6 


Prescott, 






5 


Williamstown, 








4 


Princeton, . 






1 


Winchendon, 








2 


Rowe, . 






7 













These records show that although no more fatal cases of this 
disease have occurred than during 1917, preventive inocula- 
tions have been applied this year to 40 per cent, more animals. 
The increase in this branch of the Department's work is 
undoubtedly due to the fact that cattle owners are more 
generally informed that their cattle can be successfully treated 
in protection against the disease without in any way interfering 
with their health or development. 

Actinomycosis. — Very few cases of this disease have been 
reported this year. Our customary action is to apply quaran- 
tine to animals reported as affected, while allowing owners to 
fatten them for slaughter if desired. 

Our attention has been called to 6 cases only during the 
year, 1 each in Edgartown, Lee, Lowell, Monterey, Plymouth 
and Sturbridge. Of the 6 cases reported, 1 was released as not 
being affected, 1 was killed at Brighton being affected with 
tuberculosis, and 4 were condemned and slaughtered under 
proper meat inspection. 

Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Cattle. — This is a disease which 
seems to be gradually increasing in prevalence each succeeding 
year. Our records for this year show that 6 more fatal cases 
have been reported than during 1917. Twenty-two head of 
cattle have died from the disease, these fatal cases occurring 
on 10 different premises in 9 different towns, namely, Barre, 
Dalton, Goshen, Otis, Plymouth, Princeton, Rowe, Rutland 
and Windsor. 

Its prevalence among swine is referred to on page 32 in con- 
nection with our work in prevention of hog cholera, for the 



36 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

reason that our field men engaged in inoculating swine against 
cholera have their attention directed to cases of hemorrhagic 
septicemia among them, and the record of both diseases is 
made at one time. 

The symptoms of hemorrhagic septicemia affecting cattle 
very closely resemble those of anthrax in many instances, and a 
differential diagnosis between these two diseases has frequently 
been possible only as a result of a laboratory examination of 
specimens from the carcasses of the animals. 

Preventive treatment has recently been developed to such a 
degree that it has been found possible to protect the remaining 
healthy animals, in herds where cases of the disease have oc- 
curred, by inoculation of bacterins prepared for the purpose. 
We have applied this preventive inoculation to 94 head of 
cattle during the past year. 

It is generally found that removal of the herd from the 
pasture or premises where a fatal case has developed results in 
preventing further extension of the disease. This experience 
indicates that the source of the infection is generally located 
in the soil, and that contagion does not spread rapidly from 
animal to animal. The experience of many other States where 
a widespread prevalence of this disease has been caused by 
shipments of cattle to the farms from public stockyards has 
not been repeated in Massachusetts. This is undoubtedly due 
to the fact that much of the restocking of herds in Massachu- 
setts is by the addition of cattle shipped directly from farms 
of near-by States and not often through any public stockyard. 
At the principal Massachusetts stockyards located at Brighton 
this disease has not appeared, and it therefore seems that 
Massachusetts herds may be safe from the extension of the 
disease through the same channels by which it has been spread 
in many other sections of the country. 

A few cases of this disease have appeared in sheep during the 
past year, and 17 animals have been successfully inoculated in 
its prevention. 

Mange. — This very troublesome disease seems to have been 
much less prevalent than usual in Massachusetts during the 
past year. Our records show a very much smaller number of 
animals to have been affected with it than during the years 



1919.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 37 

1916 or 1917. In the former year 449 head of cattle were 
reported as affected, but during the past year only 85 head 
have been so reported. There are, however, 4 herds in which 
the disease has prevailed in which the total number of animals 
affected has not been given. Thirty-nine horses on 21 premises 
have also been reported as showing positive symptoms of this 
disease. The premises on which cattle have been reported are 
located in Bridgewater, Canton, Greenwich, Hancock, Ludlow, 
Mendon, Methuen, Wakefield and Wayland, and the places 
from which affected horses have been reported are Abington, 
Boston, Cambridge, Lincoln, Medford, Newburyport, Newton, 
Williamstown, Woburn and' Revere. Ninety horses reported 
as contact cases have been examined by our agents and found 
not to be diseased. 

Successful treatment of this disease is possible if the owner or 
attendant will faithfully carry out the local application of 
proper medicinal remedies. The treatment recommended is not 
expensive but it is very inconvenient in application. It is our 
custom to quarantine affected animals if they are kept under 
conditions which favor the spread of the disease, and par- 
ticularly where owners and attendants are not likely to properly 
attend to them. Fortunately, however, most of the owners of 
cattle affected with mange realize that its cure means an 
increased amount of animal products, and they therefore 
faithfully follow directions for treatment. Successful treatment 
of the disease in horses also means increased capacity of the 
animals for work and less feed necessary to keep them in 
proper condition. 

Foot-and-mouth Disease. — This disease has not appeared in 
Massachusetts during the past two years, although we have 
received reports of its existence in the towns of Enfield and 
Petersham and in the city of Boston. Prompt investigation 
of these reports proved them to be unfounded. As this disease 
is at the present time prevalent in England, danger of its ap- 
pearance in this country is more or less imminent. All in- 
spectors of animals have been notified to be constantly on 
watch, in order that should it appear prompt measures may 
be taken to prevent its spread and to accomplish its extermina- 
tion. 



38 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Diseases of Sheep. — No outbreak of contagious disease among 
sheep has been reported in the past year with the exception of 
the few cases of hemorrhagic septicemia previously referred to, 
and in prevention of which several animals have been inocu- 
lated. This class of animals is very susceptible to diseases of a 
parasitic nature, and a few cases of what is known as nodular 
disease have been reported in the towns of Bolton, Lincoln, 
Rowley and Williamstown. This disease is due to an intestinal 
parasite which causes more or less loss by death of young 
lambs, and also by retarding the proper development of others 
which are harboring it. 

Contagious Abortion. — The prevalence of contagious abor- 
tion in Massachusetts herds of cattle during the past year has 
been of the same great concern to their owners as has been 
referred to in previous reports. Its ravages are well known to 
every one engaged in the production of milk or in the breeding 
of thoroughbred cattle, and the losses occasioned by its at- 
tendant results are estimated to be second only to those caused 
by bovine tuberculosis. As the chief losses caused by this 
disease are those occasioned by resulting sterility, either- actual 
or temporary, which condition should properly be the subject 
of veterinary investigation, followed by such treatment as is 
recommended by the investigator, it would seem that the func- 
tion of this Department in connection with the disease should 
properly be the giving of advice, more or less general in 
character, as to the management of infected herds and the 
carrying out of sanitary measures recognized as essential, and 
limiting the extension of the infection. In other words, it does 
not seem feasible for this Department to enter* the field of 
specific treatment of animals infected with the bacillus abortus 
or suffering from any one of the many different pathological 
conditions concurrent with the infection. Such work can be 
attended to more properly and probably more successfully by 
the private veterinarian. 

The Department has frequently been called upon to make 
examination of animals reported to be affected with a con- 
tagious disease, and it has been found that, the disease with 
which the animals may have been affected was not of a con- 



1919.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



39 



tagious nature. Among the diseases found in such instances 
may be mentioned acute indigestion, cancer, foot rot, forage 
poisoning, keratitis, lightning stroke, pericarditis and pneumonia. 
As we are anxious, however, to at all times be thoroughly 
informed as to the prevalence of contagious disease among our 
domestic animals it is our custom to promptly investigate all 
such reports from whomsoever received. 



Laboratory Examinations. 
We constantly encourage the submission to this Department 
of specimens for laboratory examination where contagious 
disease is suspected, or where for any reason positive diagnosis 
is necessary and cannot be made by other methods. In addi- 
tion to the examination of the brains of 63 animals submitted 
because suspected of rabies and 573 samples of blood taken 
from animals in our work of glanders control, there have been 
92 other specimens submitted to the laboratory for examination 
and diagnosis. These may be listed as follows under the name 
of the disease suspected, together with the finding of the 
laboratory : — 



Negative. 




Actinomycosis, . 

Anthrax, 

Blackleg, 

B. coli, 

Cancer, 

Cyst-bacterial, . 

Glanders, . 

Hemorrhagic septicemia, 

Mange, 

Necro-bacillosis , 

Nodular disease, 

Parasitic disease, 

Pneumonia, 

Tuberculosis, 



No diagnosis, 
Awaiting report, 



40 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

The importance and absolute necessity of laboratory exam- 
inations in connection with the work of this Department are 
apparent. These examinations are specially important in 
connection with diseases which are communicable to the human 
subject, notably rabies, positive diagnosis of which by clinical 
symptoms of the suspected animal is often impossible for the 
reason that in many instances the infected animal is killed 
before positive clinical symptoms have appeared. In case 
persons have been bitten by such an animal a diagnosis by 
laboratory examination becomes necessary for the purpose of 
determining whether or not preventive inoculation should be 
administered to the persons bitten. Failure to make diagnosis 
in such instances might result in the loss of human life. Labora- 
tory investigation in connection with our control work in other 
contagious diseases is also very necessary to its success and 
really indispensable at the present day. The laboratory of the 
State Department of Health has efficiently performed this 
entire service for us for the greater part of the year, our own 
laboratory worker who formerly attended to a portion of the 
work having resigned in June. 

Annual Inspection of Farm Animals and Premises. 

In accordance with sections 14 to 24 of chapter 90 of the 
Revised Laws and pursuant to an order of the Commissioner 
issued Jan. 19, 1918, to inspectors of animals of all cities and 
towns of the Commonwealth, a systematic inspection of all 
cattle, sheep and swine and the premises on which they are 
kept was duly made, and a report of the same submitted to 
this office. The inspector makes a separate report of his visit 
to each individual premises and leaves a copy of the same with 
the owner. These reports collectively furnish a comprehensive 
survey of the health and sanitation of animals kept for the 
production of food for human consumption; they also furnish 
the only correct "census" of such animals which is published, 
and are therefore of considerable interest and value not only 
to this Department but to many other State departments, 
different associations and individuals interested in dairying 
and the marketing of beef, pork or mutton, and to those 
engaged in general agricultural operations. 



1919.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 41 

A gross tabulation of these reports follows : — 

Total number of herds of cattle inspected, . . . . . 29,498 

Number of herds containing not over 5 dairy cows, . . . 20,708 

Number of neat cattle inspected, . . • . . ... . 231,407 

Number of dairy cows inspected, 151,959 

Number of herds found clean and in good condition, . . . 28,304 

Number of stables inspected, 30,359 

Number of stables properly drained, 30,088 

Number of stables well ventilated, ' 29,900 

Number of stables sufficiently lighted, . . . . '. . 29,596 

Number of stables found clean, 29,167 

Number of stables in which improvements were recommended, . 1,197 

Number of herds of swine inspected, 12,883 

Number of swine inspected, . . 81,652 

Number of herds of swine garbage-fed, 2,701 

Number of swine garbage-fed, 46,617 

Number of sheep inspected, . 16,570 

Number of goats inspected, 1,102 

The annual inspection from which the above tabulation was 
made took place during the spring months of 1918, and at 
that time there was found an increase in the total number of 
cattle in the State of 2,445 since the inspection made the pre- 
vious year, an increase of about 1 per cent. The present total 
is found to be only slightly below the average total for the 
years 1901 to 1918. The number of dairy cows decreased 
during the year by 182, and the present total shows their 
number to be about 8,000 (5 per cent.) below the average 
number for the years mentioned. 

The above statistics referring to total number of swine are 
not reliable as showing the actual conditions of the swine- 
raising industry for the reason that the numbers increase or 
decrease rapidly on individual premises according as new litters 
are farrowed or mature animals are shipped to market. The 
record of the inspector may be made just before or just after 
one of these happenings and does not therefore reliably indicate 
the condition as to numbers. The statistics referring to number 
•of herds are, however, a proper basis for deductions. These 
show that 2,310 more people engaged in swine raising during 
the year ending in the spring of 1918 than had so engaged the 
previous year. In my opinion the next annual inspection made 



42 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

in the spring of 1919 will show this number to have still further 
increased, and the ratio of increase to be much greater. 

The inspectors' records of the number of sheep found on 
farms show an increase during the year from 13,875 at the 
1917 inspection to 16,570 in 1918. On account of the recent 
increasing interest in sheep raising the total number owned in 
the State will undoubtedly show a larger proportionate increase 
at the next inspection. 

In connection with a study of the gross tabulation of the 
reports of annual inspection as made by the local inspectors of 
different towns and cities of the Commonwealth and by which 
is shown the large amount of work done by them, reference 
may very properly be made to the value of this service, if 
promptly and efficiently performed. In addition to the regular 
annual inspection of animals and premises which the inspectors 
are required by law to make they are of very great aid to the 
Department in other ways. In many instances of an outbreak 
of contagious disease among animals they are the first officials 
to be notified, and in such instances the ultimate success of 
control work by the Department may depend upon their 
prompt attention to their duty of quarantine and prompt 
report to office of the Department. Their service in identi- 
fication and release of animals shipped to Massachusetts under 
permit, and in supplying information as to violations of regula- 
tions applying to interstate traffic, enables us to more promptly 
attend to the duties necessary in connection with such cases. 

Generally speaking, the work of inspectors has been efficiently 
attended to during the past year. It has had the practical 
result of correcting unsatisfactory conditions of stabling. Their 
attention to quarantine duties has been of material aid in our 
control of outbreak of contagion and in the elimination of 
diseased animals. 

Meetings of inspectors of animals in different sections of the 
State were called as follows: Boston, November 13; Worcester, 
November 15; Greenfield, November 19; Pittsfield, November 
20; Springfield, November 21. 

The total attendance at these meetings was 203. Many 
discussions took place referring to live-stock conditions, preva- 
lence of contagious disease, duties of inspectors, followed by 



1919.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



43 



suggestions as to improvement of the service. The Department's 
work during a period of years was shown by means of charts 
prepared for the purpose and explained by Department officials. 
Section 111 of chapter 75 of the Revised Laws, as amended 
by chapter 243 of the Acts of 1907, requires rendering com- 
panies to report to this Department every animal received by 
them which is found to be infected with a contagious disease, 
and the information thus furnished is of value in bringing to 
the attention of the Department occasional cases of these 
diseases which otherwise would not be known. A table of 
reports of rendering companies follows : — 

Reports of Rendering Companies. 



Rendering Companies. 



o 
a 



n-c 


«4h 


<*H 1 




o 


O 




O -T3 






» ft rr^ 


«> fit? 


o 


<D 


a> o 


01 




m ._ <B 


03 O 


03 


c3 . 


r > O tn 

U rt o 


oj a 


O 


o.s 


O M « 




CO 


a 






«-, o 




«M O >> 


O to 


°3 


° t u 


° s a 


. <x> 




. <x> :>, 


. o 3 




<U (V, 


umber 
Gland 
viousl 


umber 
Tuber 
previo 


£ 


Z 


fc 


£ 



03.2 
OS 



3<J 



3Ph 



W. H. Abbott, Holyoke, 

L. B. Darling Fertilizer Company 

Pawtucket, R. I. 
Fitchburg Rendering Company, 

Home Soap Company, Millbury, 

Lawrence Rendering Company, 

Lowell Rendering Company, . 

A. G. Markham, Springfield, . 

James E. McGovern, Andover, 

Muller Brothers, Cambridge, . 

New Bedford Extractor Company, 

New Bedford Tallow Company, 

New England Rendering Company, 
Brighton. 

Parmenter & Polsey Fertilizer Com- 
pany, Peabody. 

N. Roy & Son, South Attleborough, 

N. Roy, Jr., Fall River, . 

Springfield Rendering Company, . 

N. Ward Company, Boston, . 

Whitman & Pratt Rendering Com- 
pany, North Chelmsford. 
Worcester Rendering Company, 

Totals 



1 
1 
2 

10 
1 

11 
1 
7 

14 
3 
1 

15 
2 
5 

13 
4 

22 
1 
2 



116 



1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


1 


1 


12 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


1 
1 

6 


14 


- 


- 


1 


- 


_ 


36 
4 


- 


- 


- 


29 


2 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


3 


17 


- 


- 


3 


1 


- 


- 


89 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


177 


60 


1 


2 



Note. — All the above cases are included in statistics occurring elsewhere in this report. 



44 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



For several years, at the request of the United States De- 
partment of Commerce and Labor, a report of the receipts of 
all live stock at Boston has been sent to Washington each 
month. The following table shows the receipts by months for 
the past year : — 



Receipts of Live Stock at the Stockyards in Boston and Vicinity for Twelve 

Months ending Nov. 30, 1918. 



For Month of — 


Cattle. 


Calves. 


Sheep. 


Swine. 


Horses. 


December 


9,766 


10,306 


12,298 


135,167 


1,157 


January, 










9,265 


13,236 


12,571 


142,496 


1,613 


February, 










7,823 


13,310 


10,778 


92,930 


1,830 


March, 










8,086 


23,304 


8,112 


122,912 


2,085 


April, . 










10,781 


39,400 


15,619 


176,192 


2,830 


May, . 










7,181 


25,217 


13,257 


129,784 


2,375 


June, . 










8,550 


16,950 


16,648 


89,859 


1,500 


July, . 










10,283 


18,987 


28,629 


114,866 


803 


August, 










9,833 


13,083 


22,966 


63,375 


1,195 


September, 










13,866 


17,104 


32,126 


45,189 


919 


October, 










19,400 


17,753 


27,199 


47,889 


794 


November, 










20,331 


18,515 


44,040 


109,367 


777 


Totals, 




135,165 


227,165 


244,243 


1,270,026 


17,878 



Financial Statement. 

Appropriation for the personal services of the Commissioner, clerks 
and stenographers and office assistants, chapter 106, Special Acts 

of 1918, . . ' . . $10,700 00 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 
Personal services of the Commissioner, .... $3,500 00 
Personal services of clerks and stenographers, . . . 6,835 35 

Extra clerical and stenographic service, .... 63 70 

Total expenditure, $10,399 05 

Unexpended balance, 300 95 

$10,700 00 

Appropriation for services other than personal, printing 
the annual report, traveling expenses of the Com- 
missioner, and office supplies and equipment, chapter 

106, Special Acts of 1918, $4,200 00 

Brought forward from 1917 appropriation, . . . 45 89 

Total amount appropriated, ... . . $4,245 89 



1919.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 45 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Books, ........... $96 06 

Express and messenger service, 177 64 

Postage . 931 27 

Printing report, 164 92 

Other printing, . . . . . . .... 1,039 94 

Telephone and telegrams, . 650 47 

Stationery and office supplies, 529 54 

Typewriter, .......... 90 00 

Expenses of the Commissioner, . . . . . . 438 95 

Sundries, 19 12 



Total expenditure, . . $4,137 91 

Unexpended balance, . 107 98 



$4,245 89 

Appropriation for the personal services and reimburse- 
ments for traveling expenses for veterinarians and 

agents engaged in work of extermination of con- 
tagious diseases among domestic animals, chapter 

106, Special Acts of 1918, , $62,000 00 

Amount forwarded from extraordinary expenses, . . 337 64 

Total amount appropriated, $62,337 64 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

Services of regular agents, $30,667 66 

Services of per diem agents, 12,020 00 

Labor hired, '. 272 59 

Traveling expenses of agents, . .... 19,377 39 

$62,337 64 



Appropriation for the reimbursement of owners of cattle 
and horses killed, traveling expenses when allowed 
to inspectors of animals, incidental expenses of killing 
and burial, quarantine and emergency services, and 
for laboratory and veterinary supplies and equip- 
ment, chapter 106, Special Acts of 1918, $74,000 00 

Expended during the year for the following purposes : — 

873 head of cattle condemned and killed on account of 

tuberculosis in 1912, 1916, 1917, 1918, paid for in 

1918, $34,224 41 

184 horses condemned and killed on account of glanders 

and farcy in 1915, 1917, 1918, paid for in 1918, . 9,321 00 

Expenses of killing and burial, . 55 50 

Ear-tags, punches, etc., 2,439 40 

Laboratory and experimental expenses and supplies, . 3,374 49 

Expenses of travel allowed inspectors of animals, . . 501 09 

Quarantine expenses 63 40 

Laundry, 340 54 

Rent of quarantine office, . • 80 00 

Sundries 208 05 



Total expenditure, $50,607 88 

Unexpended balance, 23,392 12 



$74,000 00 



46 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 1919. 

The average price paid for condemned cattle for the year 
was $37.53. 

There has been received during the year from the sale of 
hides and carcasses of condemned animals $454.18, and for the 
testing of cattle for nonresident owners $3,344, a total amount 
of $3,798.18. 

Claims for 77 head of cattle condemned and killed as tuber- 
culous during the year remain unsettled, to be paid for on 
proof of claims, the appraised value of which amounts to 
$2,806.50. 

Claims for 11 horses condemned and killed during the year 
because deemed to be affected with glanders remain unsettled, 
to be paid for on proof of claims, the allowance for which under 
the law will amount to $650. 

Respectfully submitted, 

LESTER H. HOWARD, 

Commissioner.